Custom file systems (IFileSystem)

    Media Filesystem

    By default, Umbraco uses an instance of PhysicalFileSystem to handle the storage location of the media archive (wwwroot/media).

    This can be configured during composition:

    using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
    using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.Composing;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.DependencyInjection;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.Hosting;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.IO;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Infrastructure.DependencyInjection;
    
    namespace UmbracoExamples.Composition
    {
        public class SetMediaFileSystemComposer : IUserComposer
        {
            public void Compose(IUmbracoBuilder builder)
            {
                builder.SetMediaFileSystem((factory) =>
                {
                    IHostingEnvironment hostingEnvironment = factory.GetRequiredService<IHostingEnvironment>();
                    var folderLocation = "~/CustomMediaFolder";
                    var rootPath = hostingEnvironment.MapPathWebRoot(folderLocation);
                    var rootUrl = hostingEnvironment.ToAbsolute(folderLocation);
    
                    return new PhysicalFileSystem(
                        factory.GetRequiredService<IIOHelper>(),
                        hostingEnvironment,
                        factory.GetRequiredService<ILogger<PhysicalFileSystem>>(),
                        rootPath,
                        rootUrl);
                });
            }
        }
    }
    

    When creating a PhyscialFileSystem it takes some dependencies like IIOHelper, but the last two parameters are what we're interested in. The rootPath is where your media will be stored on the disk. Since netcore by default store files in the wwwroot, we must put our desired folder somewhere within wwwroot, to ensure that we use hostingEnvironment.MapPathWebRoot(~/CustomMediaFolder). The ~ will be mapped to your wwwroot folder, so the final rootPath will be your/project/path/wwwroot/CustomMediaFolder. The ~ is therefore important.

    The other part of the puzzle is the rootUrl, which is the base URL your media files will be served from. In this case, your image URL could look something like mysite.com/CustomMediaFolder/MyAwesomePicture.png. Again the ~ is important. Another thing worth mentioning with the rootUrl is that it must be the same as the folder location, otherwise, you will get 404's for your images.

    This is all great if you want to change the location within the wwwroot folder of your project, but what if you want to store the media files outside wwwroot? This is possible but requires an extra step.

    As mentioned, netcore stores static files such as media and CSS, in the wwwroot folder by default, but we can register an additional location in the configure section of our startup.

    In the configure method in startup.cs, register a new static file location like so:

    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app)
    {
        ...
    
        app.UseStaticFiles(new StaticFileOptions
        {
            FileProvider = new PhysicalFileProvider(Path.Combine("D:", "storage", "umbracoMedia")),
            RequestPath = "/CustomPath"
        });
    }
    

    The PhysicalFileProvider takes a single parameter, the RootPath - the rooted, filesystem path, using directory separator chars, not ending with a separator //, eg c:, c:\path\to\site or \\server\path. The safest way to achieve this is using Path.Combine.

    You also have to specify the RequestPath - the relative URL, where the media will be served, using URL separator chars, not ending with a separator /, eg "", /Views or /Media.

    Now you can use your newly registered static file location as if it was wwwroot. Notice how you no longer need to use hostingEnvironment.MapPathWebRoot(folderLocation), since you're no longer trying to map the location to somewhere within wwwroot, but instead use your newly registered static file location.

    public void Compose(IUmbracoBuilder builder)
    {
        builder.SetMediaFileSystem((factory) =>
        {
            IHostingEnvironment hostingEnvironment = factory.GetRequiredService<IHostingEnvironment>();
            var rootPath = Path.Combine("C:", "storage", "umbracoMedia");
            var rootUrl = hostingEnvironment.ToAbsolute("/CustomPath");
    
            return new PhysicalFileSystem(
                factory.GetRequiredService<IIOHelper>(),
                hostingEnvironment,
                factory.GetRequiredService<ILogger<PhysicalFileSystem>>(),
                rootPath,
                rootUrl);
        });
    }
    

    This is almost the same as when registering a location within the wwwroot folder. The only difference is that rootPath is now set to the path we gave the PhysicalFileProvider and the rootUrl is the same as we set as the RequestPath in the StaticFileOption.

    Our media is now stored in C:\storage\umbracoMedia, and is served from the base URL /CustomPath, so an image URL will look something like mysite.com/CustomPath/MyAwesomePicture.png.

    IFileSystem

    PhysicalFileSystem implements the IFileSystem interface, and it is possible to replace it with a custom class - eg. if you want your media files stored on Azure or something similar. You replace the media filesystem using the SetMediafileSystem method in a composer like shown in the MediaFileSystem section, but instead of returning a PhysicalFileSystem, you return whatever implementation of IFileSystem you want.

    If you configure Umbraco to use a custom file system provider for media, you shouldn't access the implementation directly. Umbraco uses a manager class called MediaFileManager. You can get a reference to this manager class via dependency injection in the constructor for your custom class or controller:

    public class ImagesController : UmbracoAuthorizedApiController
    {
        private readonly MediaFileManager _mediaFileManager;
    
        public ImagesController(MediaFileManager mediaFileManager)
        {
            _mediaFileManager = mediaFileManager;
        }
    
    {...}
    

    You can then access the configured file system provider through _mediaFileManager.FileSystem, which is the same way Umbraco will access the file system provider.

    MediaPath Scheme

    The MediaPath Scheme defines the current set of rules that decide the format of the Media Path when it is saved into the media archive wherever it is located.

    By default the MediaPath scheme used by Umbraco is the UniqueMediaPathScheme this generates a unique 'folder' to place the uploaded image in eg.

    /media/dozdrg2f/mylovelyimage.jpg

    /media is defined by the PhysicalFileSystem and 'dozdrg2f' is generated by the UniqueMediaPathScheme.

    In Umbraco 7 the integer ids were used in the path, and this approach is still possible using the 'OriginalMediaPathScheme'

    You can set the MediaPathScheme during composition, for example if you wanted to revert back to the V7 methodology in a migrated site:

      builder.Services.AddUnique<IMediaPathScheme, OriginalMediaPathScheme>();
    

    And you could create your own logic for the path by implementing IMediaPathScheme.

    Other IFileSystems

    Umbraco also registers instances of PhysicalFileSystem for the following parts of Umbraco that persist to 'files':

    • MacroPartialsFileSystem
    • PartialViewsFileSystem
    • StylesheetsFileSystem
    • ScriptsFileSystem
    • MvcViewsFileSystem

    These are accessible via dependency injection.

    public class FileSystemLocations 
    {
        private readonly FileSystems _fileSystems;
        public FileSystemLocations(FileSystems fileSystems)
        {
            _fileSystems = fileSystems;
            var macroPartialsFileSystem = _fileSystems.MacroPartialsFileSystem;
        }
    

    IFileSystem, MediaFileManager, and FileSystems are located in the Umbraco.Cms.Core.IO namespace.

    Stylesheet Filesystem

    Like with the media file system it is also possible to replace the stylesheet filesystem with your own implementation of IFileSystem in a composer. It's important to note here that, unlike media file system, you cannot replace the filesystem with a PhysicalFileSystem using a different root path or root URL, this will not work, and will cause issues since the root path is coupled to the virtual path, given by the frontend, e.g. /css/MyBeautifulStyle.css.

    When replacing the stylesheet filesystem, you don't need to register it, since it's only available through Filesystems, what you need to do instead is configure the FileSystems to use your implementation for the StylesheetsFileSystem.

    The IUmbracoBuilder has an extension method for configuring the FileSystems, you need to invoke this method with an action that accepts an IServiceProvider and the FileSystems you will configure, configuring the FileSystems can look like this:

    using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
    using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;
    using Microsoft.Extensions.Options;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.Composing;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.Configuration.Models;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.DependencyInjection;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.Hosting;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Core.IO;
    using Umbraco.Cms.Infrastructure.DependencyInjection;
    
    namespace UmbracoExamples.Composition
    {
        public class FileSystemComposer : IUserComposer
        {
            public void Compose(IUmbracoBuilder builder)
            {
                builder.ConfigureFileSystems((factory, systems) =>
                {
                    IIOHelper ioHelper = factory.GetRequiredService<IIOHelper>();
                    IHostingEnvironment hostingEnvironment = factory.GetRequiredService<IHostingEnvironment>();
                    ILogger<PhysicalFileSystem> logger = factory.GetRequiredService<ILogger<PhysicalFileSystem>>();
                    GlobalSettings settings = factory.GetRequiredService<IOptions<GlobalSettings>>().Value;
    
                    var path = settings.UmbracoCssPath;
                    var rootPath = hostingEnvironment.MapPathWebRoot(path);
                    var rootUrl = hostingEnvironment.ToAbsolute(path);
                    var fileSystem = new YourFileSystemImplementaion(ioHelper, hostingEnvironment, logger, rootPath, rootUrl);
    
                    systems.SetStylesheetFilesystem(fileSystem);
                });
            }
        }
    }
    

    Where YourFileSystemImplementation is a class that implements IFileSystem. This should always be done in a composer, since we do not recommend trying to change filesystems on the fly.

    After the SetStylesheetFileSystem method has run, FileSystems.StylesheetsFileSystem will return the instance that was created in the ConfigureFileSystems extension method.

    Custom providers

    There is an Azure Blob Storage provider: