Templating in Umbraco consists of 3 larger concepts, namely Templates (Views), Partials (Partial Views) and Macros (Macro Partials). Templates are used for the HTML layout of your pages. Partials can be included in your templates for shared functionality across different page templates. Macros can be used for reusable dynamic components that can be controlled by editors to embed functionality into the grid or rich text areas.
Umbraco uses ASP.Net MVC Views for implementing templates.
The WebForms (masterpages) and Dynamic Razor approaches to templating are still available in Umbraco version 7 but have been removed in Umbraco version 8.
Describes how to work with MVC views, the razor syntax and APIs available. It also describes how to create forms, has some step-by-step guides and other advanced techniques.
Master page is used to create a common layout for the web-based application. This article describes how to use Master page as a Content Place Holder, inherit template and so on.
Describes how to set up a macro, use macro parameters & configuring caching. Defines the different types of macros and provides details on the different macro engine APIs and their usage.
A tool that can generate a complete set of strongly-typed published content models for Umbraco. Models are available in controllers, views, anywhere. Runs either from the Umbraco UI, from the command line, or from Visual Studio.